UPS - Uninterruptible Power Supply

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A uninterruptible power supply (also called UPS, from the English Uninterruptible Power Supply) is an apparatus used to constantly keep electrically powered alternating current loads.

It is necessary when the electrical equipment can not under any circumstances remain without power supply, thus avoiding a malfunction.

There are two main categories of UPS: On-line and Off-line.

On-line UPS systems have the advantage of eliminating the noises induced by the network through double conversion.
In the event of a blackout, the inverter takes energy from the batteries.
An integral part of the UPS is the static bypass, also called automatic and / or manual.
The first completely managed by the machine, switches the load between inverter and network without any voltage hole.
Usually carried out by means of SCR, the switching becomes important in the event of an anomaly both of the UPS and downstream of the same, i.e. of the load (overload and / or short circuit).
The manual bypass is precisely managed by an operator and is useful in the event of a fault with possible shutdown of the load and / or maintenance, to completely exclude the machine ensuring the operation of the load from the network.

The off-line UPSs have a slightly different behavior as they start to synthesize the wave only a few milliseconds after the blackout, thus creating a small "hole" of a few milliseconds, during which the load is not powered. To overcome this problem, output capacitors are used, but they are not always sufficient to maintain the power supply.
This type of UPS is only recommended for non-privileged users.

Uninterruptible power supplies can only support limited loads, based on the characteristics declared by the manufacturer.

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